Python Iterate Through Nested Json

jQuery Forum. Going to "New" in the top right corner will give you a drop down menu. items(): Writing loc * 1 is a very obscure way to take a copy of a list. Iterating Through List by 3's. ALL Online Courses 75% off for the ENTIRE Month of October - Use Code LEARN75. class WorkingWithJSON(): def getJsonContent(self, jsonStr):. I tried looping through a directory of approx 80 files. By default, a JSON object is parsed into a python dict. Can someone with explain this?. Then you loop through all values in the second suit and print the card names. Lists are enclosed in square brackets [ ] and each item is separated by a comma. This function will allow you to loop through key-value pair in all the levels. More generally, the for loop is used to iterate over any object that implements the python iterator protocol. forEach, providing 'undefined' or 'null' values for obj will not throw a TypeError, but rather just return the value provided. I want to iterate over each element in the json that is posted and save all the data to DB. In python 2. Learn how to create, use, modify, and iterate over the data inside a Python dictionary. you can obviously iterate through the. Náyade Sharon. fill each list with 5 zeros using a nested loop and add the list to the original list as a new item. Serialization is just as easy:. Looping through JSON object with nested for loops. A dictionary in Python is a collection of unordered values accessed by key rather than index. Using the interpreter. In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to loop over nested object keys using ngFor in Angular. Python 2 has a number of functionalities that can be optionally imported from Python 3 using the __future__ module, as discussed here. Python supports modules and packages, which encourages program modularity and code reuse. In this case, we’ll build JSON. Python : Get number of elements in a list, lists of lists or nested list; Python : Convert list of lists or nested list to flat list; Different ways to Iterate / Loop over a Dictionary in Python; C++ : Different Ways to iterate over a List of objects; Python : List Comprehension vs Generator expression explained with examples; Python: How to. In this article we will discuss different ways to Iterate over a python list in reverse order. Iterating Over Arrays¶ The iterator object nditer, introduced in NumPy 1. First you can get all keys by calling keySet() method, which returns list of keys as Set object. iterate through nested JSON object and get values with Python. com DataCamp Learn Python for Data Science Interactively Initializing Spark PySpark is the Spark Python API that exposes the Spark programming model to Python. io I want to iterate through all nodes in an XML file and print their names. Manipulating the JSON is done using the Python Data Analysis Library, called pandas. Now, iterating through the indexes or positions can be done in Python, but it's not really the Pythonic way of doing things. This is a 5 - day course that provides a ramp - up to using Python for data science/machine learning. I want to iterate over each element in the json that is posted and save all the data to DB. It works fine for the first "for" loop, but then for my program I need to have another "for" loop nested inside the. Once the JSON has been parsed, we can use the Python index operator to extract the various bits of data for each user. ) and for comprehension, and I'll show a few of those approaches here. copy(loc) (Python 2). Skip navigation Looping Through JSON Array EDU Onix. In this exercise you will prepare some TripAdvisor customer review data for brand positioning analyses. entries() At first sight, these static functions don’t seem to add significant value. I'm trying to iterate through the list of industryIdentifiers and save the type and identifier values. Following is an example. JSON is for Serialization: While Python developers are used to manipulating Python objects in memory, JSON is a different story. Problem 7: Write a program split. Iterating Through List by 3's. Its simple structure allows one to simplify code by presenting for-loops that visit each element of an. 1 day ago · The answer is to use loops in python — we can loop through the entire JSON and check if the type property is set to ‘primary’. If we have a dictionary. In this tutorial, we will show you how to loop a dictionary in Python. JSON was originally devised for JavaScript, but many languages now include their own standardized JSON libraries (including Python). Because the order of iteration is implementation-dependent, iterating over an array may not visit elements in a consistent order. The material is geared towards scientists and engineers. join(dirpath, file) for file in filenames]. Serializing nested loop. Hi, I'd like some help with the syntax to extract data from a dictionary object into csv. Using information from the answers here I built a function to return reasonable results to JSON where the table names are included avoiding having to alias, or have fields collide. Print a dictionary line by line using json. This is where we will be storing each row we iterate through. A for loop is used for iterating over a sequence (that is either a list, a tuple, a dictionary, a set, or a string). Coffeezilla 56,502 views. There are following two ways to iterate through HashSet: 1) Using Iterator 2) Without using Iterator Example 1: Using Iterator import java. parsing JSON files in python to get specific values python,json,parsing,data I'm trying to simply grab information from a json file using python. how to get the contents of a list in a. 3 Data Class Advantages over Named Tuples 405 10. Handling of nested JSON records #1067. Communication Between Components Using @Input() in Angular 2. DICOM in Python: Importing medical image data into NumPy with PyDICOM and VTK Posted on September 8, 2014 by somada141 I’ll be showing how to use the pydicom package and/or VTK to read a series of DICOM images into a NumPy array. Python makes use of loops, control and conditional statements to overcome this hurdle. a loop inside another loop to iterate over a multi-dimensional array in Java. Python offers a range of compound datatypes often referred to as sequences. Tag: json,parsing,go. i already was able to fix double-quote by using regeX before passing the json string. This provides us with the index of each item in our colors list, which is the same way that C-style for loops work. Python is a lovely language for data processing, but it can get a little verbose when dealing with large nested dictionaries. There are a number of ways to iterate over a Scala List using the foreach method (which is available to Scala sequences like List, Array, ArrayBuffer, Vector, Seq, etc. New tricks for old MUDs: using JSON for flexible player data In the beginning (1990), the creators of Diku had many programming challenges. json [/code]file. The keys method returns what Python 3 calls a view of its underlying keys. So, let’s get started. By going through each element in the set, you can get corresponding values from TreeMap. However now I want to list this heirarchy in JSON object in HTML using div tags so I can indent children is this possible at all. With PHP and Javascript (and Node) parsing JSON is a very trivial operation. when running the following command. for iterating_var in sequence: statements(s) If a sequence contains an expression list, it is evaluated first. It is usually easiest to use the For Each iterative statement to loop over the KeyValuePair structures. In this page you will learn about structures of JSON. You need to parse your file line by line: import json data = [] with open (. The next() method returns the next element in the iteration. But many arrays have other arrays within them. Well, as we have mentioned several times, you can, twice over, using the Revit Python Shell or Revit Ruby Shell. jQuery iterating nested objects show keys of all nested objects I am iterating through a json object of nested objects using nested $. I’ll provide an example from one of projects where I used ngFor in Angular to loop over nested object keys and values. Python® Notes for Professionals 3 module, as discussed here. Lists are collections of items where each item in the list has an assigned index value. Suppose we have a python list of strings i. There are a few ways to loop over JavaScript Object Properties! I have found 3 ways! If you prefer a video of a explanation, Ive just created it! The Object to loop over First we need an example object to loop over. Parts of the JSON can be selected using their corresponding data type’s python selection method: dictionary {}— dictionary_name[key], where key is a. This blog will show you how to do that without using Rest Services. Join hundreds of thousands of students in our supportive online community. I am trying to do that with for loop. JSONPath allows alternate names or array indices as a set. One way to repeat similar tasks is through using loops. The next thing to do is to iterate through a nested dictionary which you can see how to do here: Link. For the complete code corresponding to this tutorial, see the Ideal Gas example. dumps() In python, json module provides a function json. This will be discussed further in chapters that follow. This tutorial will provide an introduction to using the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK): a Natural Language Processing tool for Python. read(filename) parsed_data. Environment. Syntax of the For Loop. I need to loop through some JSON data (company storm data) and create a nested dictionary 4 keys deep with the first 3 keys having values of type dict and the last key having a value of type list that. io I want to iterate through all nodes in an XML file and print their names. The script loads the query results into a list object called rows, which we can iterate through to do any number of things. Iterating hashtables. Starting with the basics, this course progresses to the most important Python modules for working with data-from arrays, to statistics, to plotting results. Let’s say you’re using some parsed JSON, for example from the Wikidata API. I started learning about programming when I was 16 years old, at Columbia High School in Maplewood, NJ. FOR /F - Loop through the output of a command. Attributions. haskell list and functional. I have separate model for each dropdowns key and value pair. By going through each element in the set, you can get corresponding values from TreeMap. proto, which is then used with a metaclass to create the necessary Python data access class at runtime. I am using Python; and I need to iterate through JSON objects and retrieve nested values. More generally, the for loop is used to iterate over any object that implements the python iterator protocol. jQuery iterating nested objects show keys of all nested objects I am iterating through a json object of nested objects using nested $. I couldn't quite figure out how to construct that inner most for loop in the TNFL. They’re always available to lend support and nudge you to keep going. I need to loop through some JSON data (company storm data) and create a nested dictionary 4 keys deep with the first 3 keys having values of type dict and the last key having a value of type list that. JSON structures don't have attributes. Working with nested data structures. csv` and iterate over host name and pass those values to outside predict command, which in turn predicts future value for all the hosts listed in the outside result. Coffeezilla 56,502 views. If you compare the code to extract data from the parsed JSON and XML you will see that what we get from json. Parsing deeply nested json in Go is a bit challenging due to the fact that the language doesn't provide many helpers to do so. In typescript, we have multiple ways to iterate an array. What JSON is and how it works. JSONPath allows alternate names or array indices as a set. When we encounter data like this, we can easily parse the column into its. This tutorial introduces the basics of the Document Object Model(DOM) API. You can find a more detailed list of data types supported here. However, dictionaries allow a program to access any member of the collection using a key - which can be a human-readable string. Parsing structured data into nested python Sat, Aug 30 2014 AM. if None, normalizes all levels. Full text of "LEARNING PYTHON POWERFUL OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING, 5 TH EDITION" See other formats. Join hundreds of thousands of students in our supportive online community. So, the Address object also has more key-value pairs inside its structure. 2 Using the Card Data Class 403 10. Format Nested JSON Output with PATH Mode (SQL Server) 07/17/2017; 2 minutes to read; In this article. However now I want to list this heirarchy in JSON object in HTML using div tags so I can indent children is this possible at all. The next thing to do is to iterate through a nested dictionary which you can see how to do here: Link. from NodeJS MongoDB Mongoose export nested subdocuments and arrays to XLSX columns. A collection of name/value pairs. loewis Date: Fri Aug 27 21:11:11 2010 New Revision: 84330 Log: Merged revisions 83065-83067,83072-83073,83075,83078,83080,83088-83092,83094-83096. For example a for loop can be inside a while loop or vice versa. Learn Python from scratch. In Go, the predefined init() function sets off a piece of code to run before any other part of your package. I am trying to convert a BeautifulSoup4 HTML Table to a list of lists, iterating over each Tag elements and handling them accordingly. Now, iterating through the indexes or positions can be done in Python, but it's not really the Pythonic way of doing things. Other times a loop is obviously infinite because it has no iteration variable at all. For example, an XML file like this:. In typescript, we have multiple ways to iterate an array. Azure Cosmos DB is Microsoft’s globally distributed multi-model database service. Result: Using the Length property for a loop boundary is faster than using. Here is how to parse JSON string in Perl. In our example below, each object is fully enclosed ("nested") in the. To iterate over the indiviual lines, you should go Partially iterating through JSON list looses. In this tutorial, you'll learn how to loop over nested object keys using ngFor in Angular. This question relates to this one replicating R in Python (in there they actually suggest to wrap it up using rpy2, which I would like to avoid for learning purposes). JsonParser is the jackson json streaming API to read json data, we are using it to read data from the file and then parseJSON() method is used to loop through the tokens and process them to create our java object. python; SearchBox Multi Match Query with type best_fields and NOT phrase_prefix. About Python. We will take SQL SELECT statement to be executed against the database in a TextArea. For those curious, I used Python, along with a couple of amazing geographic mapping packages: GeoPandas (incorporates geographic data types into the Pandas package) and Folium (allows you to write Leaflet. In this example we will iterate over with keys in mydict dictionary. entries() At first sight, these static functions don’t seem to add significant value. You can also return more results by using the Scroll API or by passing an integer as the value of the "results" option, which is part of the query body object. The keys method returns what Python 3 calls a view of its underlying keys. Nested dictionaries python keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. The doctest fails:. Below is my code. Python : Get number of elements in a list, lists of lists or nested list; Python : Convert list of lists or nested list to flat list; Different ways to Iterate / Loop over a Dictionary in Python; C++ : Different Ways to iterate over a List of objects; Python : List Comprehension vs Generator expression explained with examples; Python: How to. You can use the [code ]json[/code] module to serialize and deserialize JSON data. It is recommended that you use the automatic documentation, if available, as this will also include documentation for any custom tags or filters installed. Use the "regex" module, available in the standard library(at least for python 2. An object is a JavaScript data type, just as a number or a string is also a data type. JSON objects are written in key/value pairs. Labels are only read from the first container, it is assumed that each subsequent row / column has been encoded in the same order. I build a nested JSON object for a list of strings delimited by '-' to build a heirarchy. From the looks of. continue [label]: stop the current loop iteration, immediately continue with the next one. I tried looping through a directory of approx 80 files. The following are code examples for showing how to use pyspark. How to iterate through multiple dropdowns in a grid in AngularJS for selected value. Will i get a query which will run through `host. How about this? It still only prints one thing. Using below method pass any value which is any array: Input parameter: url, like Example: "/node/[any int value of array]/anyKeyWhichInArray" Example: ";cars/Nissan. In today's blog post, I am going to show you another use for the ForEach Loop container in SSIS. 2 Python: import json. Note the type of the collection that is yielded, and compare it to the previous examples:. join(path)). You donot need to write complicated code for navigating or iterating over a JSON structure. frozenset []. I get some time to work on my fun projects and chat on Reddit. “for Statements” says:. There are following two ways to iterate through HashSet: 1) Using Iterator 2) Without using Iterator Example 1: Using Iterator import java. C# programmers will note that the for loop in Python is similar to the foreach loop in C#. 5 added the ability to iterate over an array of arrays and unpack the nested array into loop variables by providing a list() as the value. I want to iterate over each element in the json that is posted and save all the data to DB. you not doing wrong except not paying attention fact type of argument die (an alias exit) matters:. Lists and hashes can contain nested lists and hashes, forming a tree structure; arbitrary graphs can be represented using YAML aliases (similar to XML in SOAP). Golang - using/iterating through JSON parsed map. In front of a block, you can break out of that block. In this tutorial you'll learn how to read and write JSON-encoded data using Python. This page introduces some basic ways to use the object for computations on arrays in Python, then concludes with how one can accelerate the inner loop in Cython. Parsing structured data into nested python Sat, Aug 30 2014 AM. The json library in python can parse JSON from strings or files. The students become skilled in using Python Programming to implement Data Science and process information from the fields of analytical, mathematical and business logic. To do that, we need the subreddit’s discussion permalinks. The key ingredient is the Python library xlrd. Im new to python and trying to save raw post data in python into mysql. The below diagram illustrates linked list loop/cycle: Approach 1: Using Hashing. loads() and json. I am using Python; and I need to iterate through JSON objects and retrieve nested values. I am trying to convert a BeautifulSoup4 HTML Table to a list of lists, iterating over each Tag elements and handling them accordingly. So, let's get started. com Loop through all nested dictionary values? Ask Question Asked 7 years, 4 months ago. This is a python dictionary which contains key-value pairs, just like a JSON object. Making a POST request. Deserializing nested json to C# objects and accessing objects. Here’s the previous example written using a while loop. JSON in Python. Converting JSON to CSV and back again using Python. C# iterate through dictionary keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. The in keyword is used as it is in for loops, to iterate over the iterable. I was wondering whether you have any idea of how to parse the data to a. This interactive book is a product of the Runestone Interactive Project. Softpro's Python with Data Science is an advance level coure which aims at imparting knowledge to the trainees in the field of Data Science. This tutorial has been designed to help beginners understand the basic functionality of JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) to develop the data interchange format. You can use the [code ]json[/code] module to serialize and deserialize JSON data. In the example below, we are going to do it with JSON because it is very popular in different fields, but you are free to use whatever you like, including pickle. In order to manipulate a json structure in python, you have to decode it into a native python object. Then I did a nested loop through the array to find duplicated (case insensitive) dir names. Looping through JSON object with nested for loops. Then we can print that string,. Iterating through a map. (100% secure) Virustotal. Since the configuration files can have nested sections, and those are loaded as nested dictionaries, I needed a way to print them with a indentation. entries() At first sight, these static functions don’t seem to add significant value. Simply scroll down and hit the reply button to contribute to that exercise’s FAQ. Why do I feel like I dodged a bullet by not adopting JavaScript on the server? That would be a whole other article, suffice to say: try iterating through a container object in Python (one of the most common tasks in all programming), and then try to do the same thing in JavaScript. Sometimes you may have the need to automatically create an object of your own class from the JSON data. So, the Address object also has more key-value pairs inside its structure. The answer is to use loops in python — we can loop through the entire JSON and check if the type property is set to 'primary'. This is what I tried to get all the team_name elements from urllib2 import. python-cloudant latest A view that defines a JSON query index in a design document. Learn how to work with complex and nested data using a notebook in Databricks. C# programmers will note that the for loop in Python is similar to the foreach loop in C#. For example, dictionaries are not supported. You can create a nested directory in Python using the os package like this: [code]import os os. Python dictionary type provides iterator interface where it can be consumed by for loops. Deeply Nested "JSON". Iterating through csv file in python to change values if string matches items in nested list My apologies if this question is very basic as I'm new to coding and I've taken on this project mostly to learn. writerow through which the column names are passed — Note that the column name and the list name which you iterate should be the same. From some of the food products and mixtures that this. When you've reached the end of the list of values, you jump out of the nested loop and go back to the first loop to get the next suit. json list of objects: (30 objects with each 11 columns) [ { "col1":7878, "co. In this tutorial, you will learn both ways to traverse over Set or HashSet in Java i. I was successfully able to get the nested JSON object from the Script below. We provide job oriented hands on practical training by real time working professional. csv file is a formatted way ? After parse the json object , I write it to a text file using streamwriter. The keys method returns what Python 3 calls a view of its underlying keys. Can someone with explain this?. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Coffeezilla 56,502 views. To maintain full control over the output of the FOR JSON clause, specify the PATH option. I need to loop through some JSON data (company storm data) and create a nested dictionary 4 keys deep with the first 3 keys having values of type dict and the last key having a value of type list that. OrderedDict instead of a regular dict if this matters to you. By going through each element in the set, you can get corresponding values from TreeMap. If you just add another key to your example:. Acquire the prerequisite Python skills to move into specific branches of web development, data science, image processing, and more. In our example below, each object is fully enclosed (“nested”) in the. doesn't credit developers. Data Structures supported by JSON. This document describes Django's built-in template tags and filters. For example, let’s say you have a [code ]test. You can use any object (such as strings, arrays, lists, tuples, dict and so on) in a for loop in Python. I can use the script to print the data but just want. If it is, then we would iterate through it but since it's not, we're just going to print it. fill each list with 5 zeros using a nested loop and add the list to the original list as a new item. dumps() functions. When we reach the end and there is no more data to be returned, it will raise StopIteration. Right now I think it’s better than nested loops, but it starts to get Perl-one-linerish when you. This will be discussed further in chapters that follow. Otherwise it will be saved as a BSON string and retrieved as unicode. I was just putting this in as a reference as to how to iterate through all keys and values in an object. connection I have the following script to iterate through all the primitive value when. This is shorter implementation of iterate with keys where we do not need to call iterkeys. Python has a JSON module that will help converting the datastructures to JSON strings. Keys must be strings, and values must be a valid JSON data type (string, number, object, array, boolean or null). Each JSON value is stored in a type called Value. You can't nest a ForEach loop inside another ForEach loop (or an Until loop). How to iterate through this dictionary (dictionary/list within the dictionary)? I've got my dictionary of scraped data here, I was wondering how I can take this and return the data I want from it? I just want to return the inner dictionary (so 'links, code, cresturl, name, etc') and I'm a bit confused about the structure of this as I haven't. Can't iterate through JSON data Tag: ajax , json , disqus I'm trying to get a hold of comment information using the Disqus API and I've gotten as far as retrieving the data, but I'm having a lot of trouble iterating through it and getting a hold of what I want. Each list is a different row in the rectangular table, and each column represents a separate element in the list. dtype: data-type, optional. It is available so that developers that use older versions of Python can use the latest features available in the json lib. be converted to a suitable format for JSON. IF - Conditionally perform a command. Here is the Python function that I ended up using:. In Kotlin, for loop is used to iterate through ranges, arrays, maps and so on (anything that provides an iterator). The following code is an example of looping through some JSON objects. Python dictionary type provides iterator interface where it can be consumed by for loops. of loops, you get a short and sweet way to iterate over object’s properties. Therefore, it is better to use a for loop with a numeric index (or Array. It stores the result of GetUpperBound in a local. Join hundreds of thousands of students in our supportive online community. The function below takes care of this by iterating through each discussion’s JSON object and mapping each data. If you are interested in using Python instead, check out Spark SQL JSON in Python tutorial page. you will also learn different forms of storing data in JSON. ElementTree errors, html files will not parse using Python/Sublime python,html,parsing,sublimetext2 I am trying to parse a few thousand html files and dump the variables into a csv file (excel spreadsheet). Using Python this can be done in a few lines of code using existing Python libraries that do most of the work for you. For example, an XML file like this:. In this course, you will learn how to use Python for scientific and mathematical computing. One way to repeat similar tasks is through using loops. Working with nested data structures. Making a POST request. You have already converted your json to python data structure so you can just access it as you would access any other nested dictionary. I can get the values just by doing a range-based for loop, but seems I have no way to get the associated key. I think the difference is that this new approach guarantees cleanup the exact moment the loop ends, no matter how it ends. For example a for loop can be inside a while loop or vice versa. To create a foreach loop, you must define the collection that you’ll loop through, a variable to hold each element in that collection, and the script block that runs each time you step through the collection. In the Apiary REST API we need to iterate over the array of objects for “choices” represented by. While this article remains useful as background material, I strongly recommend adopting a more mature JavaScript library such as jQuery, which offers many more well-tested convenience APIs, including jQuery. Python is a lovely language for data processing, but it can get a little verbose when dealing with large nested dictionaries. You can't nest a ForEach loop inside another ForEach loop (or an Until loop). Then you loop through all values in the second suit and print the card names. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Previous: Write a PHP script using nested for loop that creates a chess board as shown below. 4 (78 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and. Different programming languages support this data structure in different names. This is a 5-day course that provides a ramp-up to using Python for scientific and mathematical computing. by using both Iterator and enhanced for loop. parent child nested child. Now, to produce counts by time zone I’ll show two approaches: the harder way (using just the Python standard library) and the easier way (using pandas). I was wondering whether you have any idea of how to parse the data to a. How to iterate through Java List? This tutorial demonstrates the use of ArrayList, Iterator and a List. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: